Applications range from space exploration to car manufacturing to electronic assembly to precision cutting tools.
Future possibilities include agricultural robots; robots that assist senior citizens perform household tasks and make decisions. Advanced sensors and activators will greatly accelerate deployment of these robots. Wireless communications is a way to meet the connectivity needs of a mobile population and can be installed rapidly without a need for cabling. It can increase business productivity, competitiveness and customer support.
Most commonly used applications are data communications, cellular telephones, GPS systems, satellite television, personal digital assistants, traffic control systems and remote controlled devices. Wi-Fi is also widely used by consumers connecting to portable devices to the internet.
M2M Machine to Machine connectivity offers much potential and will continue to grow. From manufacturing to maintenance and monitoring, from diagnostics to tracking, this wireless exchange of data enables companies to operate more efficiently and be more profitable. Powerful, easy to use remote devices have gained wide acceptance and companies depend on wireless communication for secure, reliable solutions for network connectivity.
Solar, wind, geothermal energy, tidal power and bio-fuels play an important role as alternative sources of energy. They decrease the need for fossil fuels, reduce greenhouse gases and are continuously replenished. With global warming and climate change drawing more attention, efforts are underway to both increase energy efficiency as well as the use of renewable sources of energy. Concerns about energy security would be alleviated if technological improvements were able to expand the contribution from these sources of energy to keep pace with population growth.
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Expectations are that renewable energy sources will become more cost-competitive and that the feasibility for new investments will become more attractive. Funding for research and development has shown improvement in energy yields and the potential for commercialization of new technologies. Flex circuits are used in automotive, computing, consumer electronic, defense, telecommunication and medical applications.
Thinner, more flexible flex circuits have much potential as costs become more competitive. Of particular interest is usage as a wearable medical instrument. Single and double-sided flex circuits, multilayer and rigid-flex versions are commonly offered. Light in weight these flexible circuits offer mobility and fit tight spacing requirements. Highly durable they resist exposure to moisture and protect against corrosion. Customization of circuit layer materials will optimize properties.
Environmentally friendly electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles are constantly evolving to improve energy efficiency. New vehicle technology is being developed to reduce reliance on petroleum and increase energy sustainability. Concerns about global warming from greenhouse gas emissions has given greater impetus for vehicle manufacturing companies to satisfy consumer demand for advanced fuel efficient vehicles. Impressive results from researchers have overcome many obstacles and vehicles are now available that run cleaner and use less fuel.
As government pressure increases and utilization of new materials and concepts are studied, enormous improvements in inefficiencies will result in major advances. Careful attention will be given to concerns regarding safety, acoustics, comfort and maintenance.
In order to achieve these goals the need for compounds offering improved mechanical strength, heat dissipation, stress relief, vibration dampening, temperature, chemical resistance, dielectric strength and durability becomes more pronounced. Major achievements in extracting oils and gas from remote, inhospitable, deeper locations have revolutionized the industry. Fossil fuels that were previously unobtainable are now available through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. New reserves have been uncovered through improvements in subsurface imaging and seismic data acquisitions.
This has resulted in a massive growth in reserves and supplies. Availability of these fossil fuels has had a significant impact on economic and geopolitical policies worldwide. The market for sensors is expanding at a rapid rate. They play an important role in many industries including automotive, healthcare, energy and food as well as aerospace and industrial automation.
Adoption of wireless technology, increased functionality, miniaturization and lower costs have created new opportunities. Products are available that improve efficiency, accuracy, performance, quality and reduce downtime. Potential future applications are significant. Major areas of growth are in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, transport, energy management, process industries and security.
As shown in the table, shrinkage along the tangential dimension is more than that along the radial dimension which is also much more than the longitudinal shrinkage. This observation is similar to that reported by Erakhrumen and Ogunsanwo and Gutu They noted that shrinkage is highest in the tangential direction. Liese and Malanit et al.
From this study, it is also clear that radial shrinkage is lower than tangential shrinkage. This is in contrast with the conclusions made by Anokye et al.
There was no significant difference among the mean volumetric shrinkages of the Glulam boards as shown in the Table 1. The initial increase in this strength property can be attributed to better bonding of the laminate members as a result of the addition of more glue. This view was echoed by Malanit et al. The individual laminate members constituting this sample may have more vessels and fewer fibres, thereby absorbing much of the adhesive and starving the glue joint line.
This will in turn prevent the laminate members from binding well and as such, they can be easily disengaged after applying a sudden load to them Ogunsanwo et al. Alternatively, it could also be that deep penetration of glue into the cells at the interface created more adhesion between the bamboo laminate and the forces needed to produce failure along the interface was so high that failure occurred within the bamboo cells rather than occurring along the glue line Ogunsanwo et al. Statistical analysis revealed that glue quantity had a significant effect on the impact strength of the Glulam as shown in Table 2.
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This increase in strength property can be simply attributed to the increase in the bonding strength within the Glulam due to deeper penetration of the adhesive into the laminate members. However, despite the increase in the MOE value as glue quantity increased, statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the means of the samples tested as shown in Table 2.
This can be attributed to the increase in the bonding strength consequent of the increasing glue quantity as earlier observed. This is different from the values recorded by Ogunsanwo et al. It is however similar to the value reported by Anokye et al. An increasing trend was observed with increasing glue quantity. This may be as a result of the increase in glue quantity which resulted into a higher bonding strength within the Glulam boards.
Bamboo is a fast growing, readily available, cheap alternative raw material to wood. Investigating the optimum quantity of adhesive required to produce bamboo laminate boards with good technical properties became imperative in order to minimize the cost of production, maximize profit and ensure its affordability by end users. At the end of this study, the following conclusions were made:.
Glue quantity had no significant effect on the physical properties of bamboo Glulam. Significant differences were observed for some of the mechanical properties investigated such as for impact bending strength and the modulus of rupture. Grandis and S. This reaffirms the fact that bamboo is a good alternative wood material. Based on the findings from this study, the following recommendations are essential: Variation along and across bamboo culms is inevitable; all of which affects the gluability of bamboos in laminate production.
It is therefore recommended that further research be conducted to investigate the effect of adhesive quantity, axial and radial sampling positions on the physico-mechanical properties of bamboo. Further studies should be carried out on the effect of other types of adhesive such as the natural adhesives on bamboo Glulam technical properties as the natural adhesives are more environmental friendly and will be cheaper than their synthetic counterparts.
Razak, O. Shoot production and culm growth of two commercial bamboo species in Peninsular Malaysia. Bamboo Inform Centre India Bulletin 2 1 : Anokye, R.
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Variations in moisture content affect the shrinkage of Gigantochloa scortechinii and Bambusa vulgaris at different heights of the bamboo culm. Bioresources 9 4 : Bamboo Properties and Suitability as a Replacement for Wood. Pertanika Journal of Scholarly Research Reviews 2 1 : Anwar, U. Latif, M. Effect of outdoor exposure on some properties of resin-treated plybamboo. Industrial Crops and Products 33 1 : Effect of curing time on physical and mechanical properties of phenolic-treated bamboo strips.
Industrial Crops and Products 29 1 : Chaowana, P.