This project does an admirable job… It builds upon my own work…by assessing each country against a carefully considered set of objective metrics as well as new international polling data. The result is the clearest picture to date of global soft power.
It is a useful addition to the field of research on soft power, and I suspect it will provide food for thought in capitals around the world. The specific exercise of assessing the soft power weight of a non-continuous sports diplomacy campaign, such as hosting a mega-sporting event, is admittedly demanding. However, one at least needs to have some measured outcome of a sports initiative in the foreign policy arena, compared to outcomes of other PD campaign packages.
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Aware of complications around the true content of the concept, Grix et al. They also initiated the discussion of how we can evaluate the impact — however, not in comparison with other forms of soft power but — in the specific context of hosting mega-sporting events.
Grix et al. PD is a long-term process, and soft power is a cumulative outcome. They argue that for countries such as the UK that possess hard power, soft power only comes to reinforce their objectives. They also add that for countries not possessing significant hard power resources, sports are a potentially effective soft power resource. In fact, the UK is at the top of the soft power ranking list.
According to this argument, soft power must be adequate and also have the support of sufficient hard power — India may, in fact, be able to raise it through its military collaboration with Russia. Along a similar logic, a recent study on Japan Cha, overestimates sport as a soft power resource. It contends that, by hosting the Games, Japan can re-emerge on the world stage as a global power and a global citizen. The study overlooks the fact that Japan is already among the top countries in The Soft Power 30 ranking. Most importantly, in the past, Japan enjoyed impressive IR due to its hard power.
It became the second largest economy in the world of the s, it obtained accession to the OECD bloc and has secured membership in the G7 summit. Therefore, its re-emergence on the global stage will not really rest on sport as soft power. Murray emphasizes the distinction between traditional diplomacy carried out by state institutions and modern diplomacy, which employs sportspeople that are not necessarily professional diplomats.
Anthropology and rock-art, for example, can shed new light on the diplomatic embryology of human beings, the groups they formed and the relations between those groups. Diplomacy helps improve relations between rival groups, avoiding war, conflict, division, disunity, extremism, and the like that could finally lead peoples to extinction. Another anthology by Esherick et al explores the influence and effectiveness or ineffectiveness of sport diplomacy in improving long-term relations between nations, offering case studies from the US, Canada, New Zealand, China, Russia, Brazil, the Koreas, Iran, South Sudan and Belize.
Particular emphasis is placed on programmes operated by global political players and NGOs. These works offer practical ways of pursuing SD but they actually fail to make a convincing case for the efficacy of soft power. That is not theoretically consistent. The mere act of seeking membership in international sports governance organisations is not an own soft power attractive to other states. All unrecognised states try to gain international recognition via membership in such organisations first.
Introduction: The Challenges of 21st-Century Diplomacy
There is no problem when an NGO of a state e. This article has been critical of the abundant use of the soft power-sports diplomacy templates in studying sports and IR.
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The concept has been influential among researchers, because it appears relatively easy to apply. However, there are three major shortcomings.
The two templates comprise only one dimension of the neoliberal paradigm and thus relevant research remains devoid of theoretical IR significance. And, lastly, they have been either stretched too much or popularized to the extent that they appear to be inconsistent with their own ontology. London: Routledge. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Liverpool, Liverpool University Press. New York: Public Affairs. He has ongoing research in both urban and international politics. His recent work highlights the application of US urban politics theories outside North America and the application of international relations IR theories to the study of conflicts and rapprochements.
Among his IR publications are: Lekakis, N.
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Please Consider Donating Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. Download PDF. But after reading many of its standalone chapters, I consider it an important contribution to modern diplomacy. Inspired by work done in the Center for International Governance Innovation, and edited by distinguished CIGI practitioner-scholars Andrew Cooper, Jorge Heine and Ramesh Thakur, The Oxford Handbook contains a range of insightful articles and case studies by practitioners and theoreticians from around the world.
But other authors I rarely find in print. After describing mediations in which he served as a United Nations special envoy and the lessons he learned from them, Ahtisaari concludes his chapter on an important note about the relevance of mediation today and urges his fellow mediators to tap the comparative advantages that non-state entities can bring to conflict management and resolution. To ensure that it can also be successful, we need to develop a better understanding of the process and offer consistent guidelines to the many actors involved in mediation.
Actors include transnational nongovernmental organizations, multinational corporations, international organizations and regional organizations. Engaging a considerable number of players at different levels of diplomacy, and exploiting their comparative advantages while being able to manage the complexity for the benefit of the peace process, form a part of a mediation process design.
Rebalancing the Encounter between Science Diplomacy and International Relations Theory
Often the potential of several tracks of diplomacy is underutilized. It would be profitable, as Ahtisaari suggests, that mediations be analyzed to determine what made them successful or not. Speaking as a former environment, science, technology and health officer, I was pleased to find chapters in The Oxford Handbook addressing subjects like health, climate change and food security. I had hoped to also see the subject of religion and diplomacy among the chapters on nontraditional diplomacy, because the appointment by Secretary of State John F.
Kerry of Dr. Shaun Casey as director of the new Office of Faith-Based Community Initiatives is a long-overdue watershed event in American diplomacy. Its absence from the Oxford tome is an indication that diplomacy continues to evolve. Its content is up to date and largely free of the jargon one finds in too much academic writing. While there is footnoting, it is accessible and useful to anyone wishing to go deeper into the material.
I plan to keep this work on ready reserve for the course I teach at New York University and assign several chapters from it. I have no doubt eager students will read beyond the assigned parts. While it is certainly handier than The Oxford Handbook at just pages, its typeface is so small that I had to squint to read it.
Moreover, three-quarters of its content discusses the foreign policy of various nations, not diplomacy.
That said, I found some useful material here. This is not a book one picks up and reads from start to finish. Rather, it is more a handy reference tool—marvelously written—to dip into when dealing with complex issues of diplomatic law and practice.
Andrew F. Cooper, Jorge Heine, and Ramesh Thakur
While there is a bias toward British diplomatic practice in the book, the editors do highlight divergent practices on a topic of diplomatic law and practice, especially when the other view is that of the United States. You and your successors will appreciate it.
Another handy reference work is Marjorie M.